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Anatomy and physiology of tongue pdf

Plant cells are made of organic molecules using energy from the sun. Animals rely on these ready-made organic molecules to supply them with their food. Therefore herbivores employ micro-organisms to anatomy and physiology of tongue pdf the job for them. These non-ruminant herbivores include the horse, rabbit and rat.

Plants are a primary pure and good source of nutrients, however they aren’t digested very easily and therefore herbivores have to eat large quantities of food to obtain all they require. Herbivores like cows, horses and rabbits typically spend much of their day feeding. To give the micro-organisms access to the cellulose molecules, the plant cell walls need to be broken down. This is why herbivores have teeth that are adapted to crush and grind. Their guts also tend to be lengthy and the food takes a long time to pass through it. Eating plants have other advantages.

Plants are immobile so herbivores normally have to spend little energy collecting them. This contrasts with another main group of animals – the carnivores that often have to chase their prey. They often have to use large amounts of energy finding, stalking, catching and killing their prey. However, they are rewarded by the fact that meat provides a very concentrated source of nutrients.

Carnivores in the wild therefore tend to eat distinct meals often with long and irregular intervals between them. Time after feeding is spent digesting and absorbing the food. The guts of carnivores are usually shorter and less complex than those of herbivores because meat is easier to digest than plant material. Carnivores usually have teeth that are specialised for dealing with flesh, gristle and bone.

They have sleek bodies, strong, sharp claws and keen senses of smell, hearing and sight. They are also often cunning, alert and have an aggressive nature. Having the ability to derive energy from plant and animal material. Having characteristics which are optimized for acquiring and eating both plants and animals. Some animals fit both definitions of omnivorism, including bears, raccoons, dogs, and hedgehogs. Their food is diverse, ranging from plant material to animals they have either killed themselves or scavenged from other carnivores. The examples also retain an ability to taste amino acids, making unseasoned flesh palatable to most members of the species.