This article principles of antibiotic therapy pdf about treatment of bacterial infection. Antibiotics revolutionized medicine in the 20th century.
This will usually involve the use of a narrow-spectrum antibiotic. The choice of antibiotic given will also be based on its cost. Identification is critically important as it can reduce the cost and toxicity of the antibiotic therapy and also reduce the possibility of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Topical antibiotics applied over certain types of surgical wounds have been reported to reduce the risk of surgical site infections. However, there are certain general causes for concern with topical administration of antibiotics. Health advocacy messages such as this one encourage patients to talk with their doctor about safety in using antibiotics.
Antibiotics are screened for any negative effects before their approval for clinical use, and are usually considered safe and well tolerated. Safety profiles of newer drugs are often not as well established as for those that have a long history of use. Exposure to antibiotics early in life is associated with increased body mass in humans and mouse models. Therefore, there is correlation between antibiotic exposure in early life and obesity in humans, but whether or not there is a causal relationship remains unclear. Although there is a correlation between antibiotic use in early life and obesity, the effect of antibiotics on obesity in humans needs to be weighed against the beneficial effects of clinically indicated treatment with antibiotics in infancy. If patient-specific risk factors for reduced oral contraceptive efficacy are suspected, backup contraception is recommended.
Interactions between alcohol and certain antibiotics may occur and may cause side-effects and decreased effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. While moderate alcohol consumption is unlikely to interfere with many common antibiotics, there are specific types of antibiotics with which alcohol consumption may cause serious side-effects. Therefore, potential risks of side-effects and effectiveness depend on the type of antibiotic administered. Other effects of alcohol on antibiotic activity include altered activity of the liver enzymes that break down the antibiotic compound. The successful outcome of antimicrobial therapy with antibacterial compounds depends on several factors. A bactericidal activity of antibacterials may depend on the bacterial growth phase, and it often requires ongoing metabolic activity and division of bacterial cells.
These findings are based on laboratory studies, and in clinical settings have also been shown to eliminate bacterial infection. However, this can vary depending on the species of bacteria. In general, combinations of a bacteriostatic antibiotic and bactericidal antibiotic are antagonistic. Most target bacterial functions or growth processes.