The effect of homework is debated. Generally speaking, homework does not improve academic performance among children and may improve academic skills among older students. It also creates stress for students and their parents and reduces the amount of time that students could spend outdoors, exercising, playing sports, working, sleeping or in stress management assignment pdf activities.
Homework also provides an opportunity for parents to participate in their children’s education. Homework is designed to reinforce what students have already learned. Homework research dates back to the early 1900s. However, no consensus exists on the general effectiveness on homework.
Results of homework studies vary based on multiple factors, such as the age group of those studied and the measure of academic performance. Very high amounts of homework cause students’ academic performance to worsen, even among older students. Students who are assigned homework in middle and high school score somewhat better on standardized tests, but the students who have 60 to 90 minutes of homework a day in middle school or more than 2 hours in high school score worse. However, younger students who spend more time on homework generally have slightly worse, or the same academic performance than those who spend less time on homework. Low-achieving students receive more benefit from doing homework than high-achieving students. However, schoolteachers commonly assign less homework to the students who need it most, and more homework to the students who are performing well. The amount of homework given does not necessarily affect students’ attitudes towards homework and various other aspects of school.
For all three of the correlations, higher values represent a higher correlation between time spent on homework and poor conduct. In a single study, parents and teachers of middle school students believed that homework improved students’ study skills and personal responsibility skills. Their students were more likely to have negative perceptions about homework and were less likely to ascribe the development of such skills to homework. Homework has been identified in numerous studies and articles as a dominant or significant source of stress and anxiety for students. Studies on the relation between homework and health are few compared to studies on academic performance. 1,983 students in Hong Kong, and found that homework led not only to added stress and anxiety, but also physical symptoms, such as headaches and stomachaches.
Stress was especially evident among high school students. Students that reported stress from homework were more likely to be deprived of sleep. Homework can cause tension and conflict in the home as well as at school, and can reduce students’ family and leisure time. English teachers, reported that their homework disrupted their students’ extracurricular activities and responsibilities. 4,317 high school students from ten high-performing schools, and found that students reported spending more than 3 hours on homework daily.